Is it possible to grow a giant Jamun tree in to bush shape? Yes. By doing essential pruning we can limit its height to around 6 feet. It is the ideal height for the commercial cultivation of Jamun.
We all know about Java (Nerale) tree, which grow gaint size. Java tree fruit is very healthy and has tremendous medicinal uses. Researchers also proved this. There were a lot of Jamun trees around us in few years back. Because of afforestation, we have lost a maximum of trees. Eating jamun fruits is not new to Indians. Now because of their health benefits Jawa or Jamun fruits are highly demanded. Harvesting of Jamun fruits is very hard because there was a scarcity of tree climbers. To overcome the harvesting problem solution is to grow this plant in bush type, limiting its height up to 6 feet. A senior progressive farmer N.C Patel from Bangalore rural, Nagadasanahalli , near Yalahanka successfully did this in his garden. He is the biggest Jamun cultivator of Karnataka, having around 5 acres of Jamun plantation. Here harvesting of fruits and essential management of trees is very easy.
Why jamun cultivation?
We can discuss with the farmer N C Patel about jamun cultivation. He explains why he selected it. He started his jamun cultivation in 2005. In his area water source is limited. This require less water so he selected this crop. In the initial stages, we have to provide limited water for the fast growth of plants. After 3 years it will grow in the rainwater source. In his opinion, it is only crops require limited water.
What is the market potential?
If crops came early in summer, there were good rates. Around 300-400 rs. Per kilogram. If it comes late rate will come down. Sometimes early and delayed crops depend upon climate factors. This year the climate is very favorable for Jamun fruiting. At AndraPrasesh, a lot of wild trees fetched abundant yield. So the rate collapsed and reached – 50-60 per Kg. If it is ready to harvest in May month you can get a good rate. After June rate will come down.
Which is the variety:
The variety selection is very important in Jamun cultivation. Mr Patel failed in the variety section in first. It was not given an attractive size of fruits. He searched an old tree near his native, its fruits were good. Next, he did in-situ grafting to the same rootstock. Stumping the rootstock 1 foot above the ground level, and allow the sprouting of new shoots. Softwood Grafting by selected variety he managed it. Everybody liked this fruit and a few well-wishers called it Patel Jambu. From this inspiration, he multiplied many plants and extended the area. Many times good varieties are available around us, observation and identifying them is very important.
How to shape bush size:
Jamun Trees are a growing habitat. If we allow it to grow as it is, it will grow like a giant tree. Before planting he visited Kolar, a farmer who was getting around 50,000 Rs in a tree. They are harvesting the fruits by climbing with the help of 40-foot-long bamboo ladders. It is very hard and no skilled laborers here. So we decided to hinder the growth by pruning the tree shoots.
There are two types of shots emerging from the Jamun tree. One is Water shoots, another is lateral shoots. If we allow water shoots it will grow very fast and attain height. We are pruning water shoots when it sprout. Only lateral shoots are allowed to grow. In this practice, we can restrict the height always 6 feet. At first, we were restricted to growing it up to 15-20 feet, next, we did 15 feet. Both are not easy to harvest. Now we are satisfied with this method restricting a maximum height of 6 feet. Here unskilled labourers also harvest the fruits standing on the ground. Ladders are not required. Nowadays there is a shortage of labor in the agriculture sector. Here we can observe the water shoots and lateral roots. If we allow to growth of water shoots the fruit yielding will decrease. Only vegetative growth will increase.
Here N C Patel planted in the distance of 18X18. Per acre, we can accommodate 100 plants. The age of this plant is 6 years. In this, we are getting an average of 20-30 kg of fruits. Some plants have a potential of 50 kg also. Even in the 10th or 20th year, we have to maintain the height of the plant at 6 feet. According to the age of the tree, vertical growth is not disturbed. After 6-7 years we can get up to 200 kg of fruits. Farmers can judge the distance according to their locality and soil condition. In rich soil, it is better to maintain more distance.
The plant requires balanced nutrients and micronutrients for good size and tasty fruits. Jamun plants need a very small quantity of nutrients. According to the recommendations of scientists we have to provide it.
Disease and pests:
Like all fruit plants jamun Trees also have some pests and diseases. The stem borer is the main problem. Birds and moths also damage the fruits. We have to sacrifice for minimum losses. They are minors. For stem borer control, precautionary measures are essential.
In the future horticulture fruit crops like Mango, Jamun, or any crop should grow in dwarf size, because harvesting and management are very easy. The research work is also going on in this method.