Flowers get pollinated by insects, wind, water, bats etc to continue their generation. Here also some exceptional cases. This vegetable needs artificial pollination.
Pollination is a key factor for all plants to succeed their generation. Flowering is one of the natural phenomena to continue their existence in nature. Some plants are bearing bisexual flowers and some unisexual. There are varieties of pollinating agents in our surrounding. Among them, insects play an very important role in transfer of pollen from one flower to another flower. If there is no pollination then no chance for fertilization and further development process like fruit and seed setting.
- In our surrounding we may find few plant species which are untouched by any pollinating agents.
- So they need artificial pollination to continue their generation.
- We know that Vanilla the costliest spice crop needs artificial pollination.
- Another costliest vegetable crop called Teasle gourd (Mada Hagala Kaayi –in Kannada) also pollinated by artificial method.
Locally we can find a variety which gets pollinated by insects, but there are some drawbacks like unsynchronized blooming of male and female flower. After the onset of monsoon, it reaches the reproductive phase. But due to the heavy rain the insects are not able to pollinate. So yielding capacity is very less.
- But Myanmar variety is suitable to cultivate for the commercial purpose.
- Its specialties are easy propagation, high yielding capacity, large fruit size, summer yielding nature and adaptable to all agro climatic conditions.
The special and costliest vegetable:
- This is the wild vegetable native to Assam and nearby region.
- It is also grown as a commercial crop in Assam, Tripura, West Bengal, Odissa and Andamans.
- Its tender fruit is used as vegetable in our country especially by GSB communities.
- It is considered as a healthy vegetable.
- Its production and demand gap is high.
- So rate is very high. In retail market this vegetable gets around 200 Rs. Per kilogram.
- Availability in market is very less.
- So it has more opportunity for farmers to cultivate this crop.
- Farmer can get good income even from small scale cultivation (around 5-10 cents).
How to plant:
- Best planting material is tuberous roots.
- Rooted vine cuttings also can be used.
- Better to plant it during the month of November or December.
- Size of the pit should be 60x60x60 cm.
- It is better to treat the tubers with 2% Dithane M-45 solution and shade dry is required.
- Mixture of farm yard manure, 100 g of NPK and top soil is used for filling the pit.
- If root damaged by any cultivation, there new plant will spruit.
- Appling sufficient oraganic manure is essential.
- Single line trellis in the height of maximum 6 feet is advisable.
- If height increased artificial pollination become hard.
- Permanent structure will helps to keep continues crop.
- Pollination work will be done at 6 am to 10 am.
- After it is not advisable. Male flowers are plucked and stamens touched to female stigma.
- From each healthy plant we can expect 10-15kg.fruits.
- After the fruit set, on 15th day fruits are ready for harvest.
Pest and disease:
- Cucumber moth, fruit fly, spotted beetle, red pumpkin beetle are the few insect pests usually attack this plant.
- Root knot nematode severely affects the growth of the vines.
- Fruit fly is the major threat. Pheromone traps installed in early stage will control.
- Wilt disease, anthracnose are the major disease.
- Spraying of Mancozeb 2g and Carbendazium 0.5g helps to control the disease.
How to get plants:
- It was introduced to Karnataka by Central Horticulture experiment station, IIHR, Chetalli, Madikeri.
- They will supply the planting material.
- Now some farmers already cultivated this.
- They are doing plants for sale purposes.
This vegetable needs daily pollination to get yield. One male flower can be used to pollinate around ten female flowers. We have to plant male and female separately to identifying the seed source. If you work hard you can get good return for your hard work.
Written by Dr. Rajeshwari K R ( Information by source and cultivating experience)